How do they work?
The research is still inconclusive on exactly how the drugs work to stimulate the mind, but early research indicates they may act on a variety of different systems within the body simultaneously. One explanation is that they may increase blood flow to the brain, which allows the brain to use more oxygen.
Some cognitive enhancers may raise the body’s adrenaline levels and produce effects similar to drinking large amounts of caffeine, which means people can stay awake for extended periods of time. Some drugs increase the amount of certain chemicals (neurotransmitters) such as dopamine, which are released in the part of the brain associated with dependence.