New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a range of drugs that have been designed to mimic established illicit drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy and LSD. Manufacturers of these drugs develop new chemicals to replace those that are banned, which means that the chemical structures of the drugs are constantly changing to try to stay ahead of the law. New psychoactive substances (NPS) are being developed at an unprecedented rate.
As of December 2015, 643 new psychoactive substances were registered in the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Early Warning Advisory on NPS. In 2015, the emergence of 75 substances was reported for the first time. Out of these, the majority of the substances belong to synthetic cannabinoids (21), synthetic cathinones (20) and phenethylamines (9). In addition, another 21 substances were reported for the first time in 2015, that are structurally diverse and do not fit to any of the above-mentioned groups.
Synthetic drugs, legal highs, herbal highs, party pills, synthetic cocaine, synthetic cannabis, herbal ecstasy, NBOMes, bath salts, plant fertiliser, herbal incense, room deodorisers, aphrodisiac tea, social tonics, new and emerging drugs (NEDs), drug analogues and research chemicals.
These products can sometimes be marked ‘not for human consumption’.
This is one of the biggest misconceptions about NPS. Even though they are sometimes advertised as legal, this doesn’t mean they are safe. Given how rapidly new drugs are emerging, it is difficult to know the common effects of these drugs and what dose causes what effects.
NPS do not typically come with a recommended dosage printed on the label. They are unregulated and untested. Given the chemicals in these drugs are constantly changing to try to stay ahead of the law, it’s possible to receive a very different product from batch to batch, even if the packaging and name are the same. NPS are relatively new, so there is limited information available about their short and long-term effects. However, synthetic cannabis has been reported to have more serious side-effects than cannabis.
Party pills and pellets are sometimes marketed as natural supplements that increase energy or mood, with effects similar to ecstasy or amphetamines. However, these products can contain man-made chemicals and the label often doesn’t list the ingredients correctly.
Research on them has demonstrated they are usually made with synthetic chemicals, which are cheaper. These products are marketed under names such as Loaded, HyperDrive and NeuroBlaster.
Party pills are available as pills or small pellet-like tablets or in small bottles of liquid.
They are usually swallowed.
Treatment could be quicker and more effective if the person has used the drug with somebody who can advise exactly what has been taken and the dosage, or it has been written down – supplying the packet might be helpful.
Synthetic cannabis is produced with man-made chemicals that create similar effects to delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in cannabis. However it also produces additional negative effects.
These powdered chemicals are mixed with solvents and added to dried herbs. Synthetic cannabis is marketed under different brand names including Spice, Kronic, Northern Lights, Mojo, Lightning Gold, Lightning Red and Godfather. It is also marketed under other general terms including aphrodisiac tea, herbal incense and potpourri.
Synthetic cannabis looks like dried herbs and is sold in colorful, branded packets.
It’s usually smoked and is sometimes drunk as a tea.
There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries risk.
Negative side-effects and overdose are more likely when NPS are taken in combination with alcohol or other drugs.
It’s very hard to know the effects of NPS, even if they’ve been taken before, as these products are constantly changing.